Servqual Model
As the importance and size of the ser-vice sector of the global economygrows, the study of services and innova-tion are becoming increasingly impor-tant. Services are distributed regionally,nationally, and globally and are increas-ingly becoming a larger portion of many organizationsí revenue streams; knowl-edge intensive business services aimed at enhancing performance require reli- able methods of measurement, assessment, and improvement. SERVQUAL represents service quality as the discrepancy between a customer's expectations for a service offering and the customer's perceptions of the service received, requiring respondents to answer questions about both their expectations and their perceptions. The use of perceived as opposed to actual service received makes the SERVQUAL measure an attitude measure that is related to, but not the same as, satisfaction.

TANGIBLES - the appearance of physical facilities, equipment, personnel and information material

RELIABILITY - the ability to perform the service accurately and dependably

RESPONSIVENESS - the willingness to help customers and provide a prompt service

ASSURANCE - a combination of the following

  • Competence - having the requisite skills and knowledge
  • Courtesy - politeness, respect, consideration and friendliness of contact staff
  • Credibility - trustworthiness, believability and honesty of staff
  • Security - freedom from danger, risk or doubt
EMPATHY - a combination of the following:
  • Access (physical and social) - approachability and ease of contact
  • Communication - keeping customers informed in a language they understand and really listening to them
  • Understanding the customer - making the effort to get to know customers and their specific needs

Servqual Gaps
Gap analysis questionnaire is divided into 2 main sections:

  • Expectations measures what is anticipated in an ideal service (on a 7-point scale)
  • Perceptions then measures those aspects of the service as actually delivered or experienced
  • Satisfaction (S) is conceptualized as the gap between expectations and perceptions
  • So.. S=E-P

    Gap 1: The difference between management perceptions of what customers expect and what customers really do expect

    Gap 2: The difference between management perceptions and service quality specifications - the standards gap

    Gap 3: The difference between service quality specifications and actual service delivery - are standards consistently met?

    Gap 4: The difference between service delivery and what is communicated externally - are promises made consistently fulfilled?

    Gap 5: The difference between what customers expect of a service and what they actually receive

      expectations are made up of past experience, word-of-mouth and needs/wants of customers, measurement is on the basis of two sets of statements in groups according to the five key service dimensions
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