Definition of Quality
The meaning for the term quality has developed over time. Various interpretations are given below:
ISO 9000 - "Degree to which a set of inherent characteristic fulfills requirements"
Six Sigma - "Uniformity around a target value"
Philip B. Crosby in the 1980s)- "Conformance to requirements". The difficulty with this is that the requirements may not fully represent customer expectations; Crosby treats this as a separate problem.
(Joseph M. Juran).- "Fitness for use". Fitness is defined by the customer.
(Gerald M. Weinberg)- "Value to some person".
Pre -Industrial Revolution
– Skilled craftsmen controlled their own quality through pride of workmanship. They were involved in the product from beginning to end.
• 1880’S - Frederick Taylor and “Scientific Management”
– Mass production, assembly lines, and division of labor. Introduction of work standards and wage incentives
• 1920’S - Shewhart Introduces Statistical Process Control
– Methods based on continual on-line monitoring of process variation. Concept of “common cause” and “assignable cause” variability.
1930 - Dodge and Romig Introduce Acceptance Sampling Methods
– Probabilistic approach to predicting lot acceptability based on sampling results. Centered on defect detection; concept of acceptable quality level (AQL)
• 1950 - Deming Introduces Statistical Process Control to Japan
• 1970’s - Many U.S. Companies Begin Losing Market Share to Global Competitors
• 1980 - “Quality Revolution” Begins in America
• 1984 - U.S. Government Designates October as National Quality Month
• 1987 - Malcolm Baldridge National Quality Award is Established
• 1990’s - Quality Programs Spread to Service Industries
– Proliferation of Quality programs: TQM, QFD, Six Sigma, Kaizen, Poke Yoke, Taguchi Methods, Benchmarking, CQI, FMEA, etc.
Deming 14 points
Create Constancy of Purpose for Improvement of Product and Service
Adopt the New Philosophy,Cease Dependence on Mass Inspection for Quality Control,End the Practice of Awarding Business on Price Tag Alone,Constantly and Forever Improve the System of Production and Service,Institute More Thorough, Better Job-Related Training,Institute Leadership,Drive Out Fear, Break Down Barriers Between Departments,Eliminate Slogans, Exhortations, and Targets of the Work Force,Eliminate Work Standards on the Factory Floor,Remove Barriers that Rob People of Pride of Workmanship,Institute a Vigorous Program of Education and Self-Improvement,Put Everybody in the Organization to Work to Accomplish the Transformation
PHILLIP CROSBY::FOUR ABSOLUTES OF QUALITY MANAGEMENT
Definition of Quality: “Conformance to Requirements”,
Performance Standard: Zero Defects,
Measurement: Cost of Quality,
• CROSBY’S 14 STEPS
1. Management Commitment
2. Quality Improvement Team
3. Quality Measurement
4. Cost of Quality Evaluation
5. Quality Awareness
6. Corrective Action
7. Zero Defects Planning
8. Quality Education
9. Zero Defects Day
10. Goal Setting
11. Error Cause Removal
13. Quality Councils
14. Do It All Over Again
our-time winner of the “Deming Award”
• Joined ECL in 1949 with the charge to improve efficiency of
R & D activities. Cultivated the application of designed experiments.
• Advocates a three-stage process design model:
1. System Design
2. Parameter Design
3. Tolerance Design
• Quality Loss Function
• Signal-to-Noise Ratio