Interpersonal Power: FRENCH AND RAVEN
Introduction
The kind of power we are interested in is interpersonal power or that form of potential influence that occurs between people, individually or in groups. The power of organizations and nations is to some extent an extrapolation of interpersonal power (such as when representatives of organizations and nations make deals that are binding on each group) but there are also features of “higher order” power that go beyond our interpersonal emphasis. For example, the combined efforts of the members of an organization can lead to the domination of a market, a region of the world, or the use of resources. However, the behavior of large organizations in adapting to their environments has a different pattern than the behavior of leaders adapting to their constituents. Interpersonal adaptations can occur more quickly and at less cost.
Coercive or Punishment Power
Coercive power stems from the power holder’s ability to dispense punishments to the recipient, including the power of life and death. This is one kind of power parents have over small children or criminals and bullies have over their victims. They can demand compliance using the threat of punishment or bodily injury.
Legitimate Power
Legitimate power stems from the rights of the legitimate authority or formal position of the individual in the organization. Each position has its rights, prerogatives, duties and responsibilities. Persons higher in an organization usually have greater legitimate authority or power. A person with specific authority can demand compliance in that specific area. The comptroller can demand that you keep a record of your expenditures so that you may be reimbursed. Your manager can request that you perform the duties of your job or face discipline.
Expert Power
Expert power is derived from the special knowledge and abilities of the individual, particularly in the eyes of the beholder and especially if such special abilities have been lately demonstrated. Most organizations cannot function without various kinds of experts and their ability to interpret various states of reality, to design systems or products, or to control certain kinds of machinery and processes is the basis for substantial rewards.
Reward Power
Reward power stems from the power holder’s ability to reward another person in some way such as by providing pay, material goods, promotions, raises, favors, favored jobs, a pleasant work environment, or psychological rewards such as praise, attention, recognition or compliments. Intrinsic rewards are such things as being able to do a desired or favorite work assignment, participating in achieving a goal, or actualizing an important value. Extrinsic rewards are those that are obtained after a behavior such as getting a commission or a raise.
Referent Power
Referent power stems from the value of the person or group to the perceiver. As the person or group comes to be more liked, trusted, admired, and respected, he, she, or the group will be consulted and referred to in matters of opinion and behavior. A subordinate may identify with his or her mentor or boss in such a way as to consciously or unconsciously copy the mentor's ideas, dress, behavior, attitudes, and approaches. This is the power of identification processes.
Persuasion Power
Persuasion power is the ability to influence others with the use of rhetoric or communication skill. Rational persuasion uses logic, good arguments, effective critical thinking, and scientific data. Emotional appeals try to elicit our sympathy, our patriotic sentiments, our sense of pride, etc. Inspirational appeals elicit our sense of justice, brotherhood, spirituality, etc. and appeal to the vision of an ideal future.
Information Power
Persuasion power is the ability to influence others with the use of rhetoric or communication skill. Rational persuasion uses logic, good arguments, effective critical thinking, and scientific data. Emotional appeals try to elicit our sympathy, our patriotic sentiments, our sense of pride, etc. Inspirational appeals elicit our sense of justice, brotherhood, spirituality, etc. and appeal to the vision of an ideal future.
Charismatic Power
Charismatic power stems from the person's status as a revered and trusted person in the life of the perceiver. It is perhaps are more powerful version of referent power. "Charisma" comes from a Greek word meaning "gift" and the ability “to attract.” Charismatic persons seem to have the ability to attract and hold others. They do so by the power of their oratory, their confidence in what they believe, their deep connection with what their people feel, need, and aspire to, their ability to create a vision of the future, and their skill in creating a strong group cohesion to execute their plans and strategies.

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