The Nobel committee in Norway praised him for his peace agreement with Farc rebels, signed last month after four years of negotiations.
However, Colombians narrowly rejected the deal in a referendum last weekend.
The conflict has killed about 260,000 people have been killed. More than six million have been internally displaced.
The 2016 Nobel laureates for physics, medicine and chemistry: all men, at least 65 years old and mostly over 72.
Go back to the first half of the 20th Century, however, and the average laureate was "only" 56. Physics laureates, now typically a group of men in their late-sixties, used to have an average age of 47.
A subsurface ocean lies deep within Saturn's moon Dione, according to new data from the Cassini mission to Saturn. Two other moons of Saturn, Titan and Enceladus, are already known to hide global oceans beneath their icy crusts, but a new study suggests an ocean exists on Dione as well.
The 2016 Nobel Prize for Chemistry has been awarded for the development of the world's smallest machines.
Jean-Pierre Sauvage, Sir Fraser Stoddart and Bernard Feringa will share the 8m kronor (£727,000) prize for the design and synthesis of machines on a molecular scale.
They were named at a press conference in Sweden.
Yoshinori Ohsumi, a Japanese cell biologist, was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine on Monday for his discoveries on how cells recycle their content, a process known as autophagy, a Greek term for “self-eating.”