Learning styles model:Kolb
According to Kolb (1984) "learning is the process whereby knowledge is created through the transformation of experience. Knowledge results from the combination of grasping experience and transforming it."

Kolb’s theory offers both a way to understand individual people's different learning styles, and also an explanation of a cycle of experiential learning that applies to us all. Kolb's four stage theory uses a model with two dimensions. This model is based on two continuums that form a quadrant:

Processing Continuum: Our approach to a task, such as preferring to learn by doing or watching: Mechanism by which we grasp the experience.

Perception Continuum: Our emotional response, such as preferring to learn by thinking or feeling: Mechanism by which transform the experience.

Kolb theorized that the four combinations of perceiving and processing determine one of four learning styles of how people prefer to learn.

A typical presentation of Kolb's two continuums is that the east-west axis is called the Processing Continuum (how we approach a task), and the north-south axis is called the Perception Continuum (our emotional response, or how we think or feel about it).The learning styles are the combination of two lines of axis (continuums) each formed between what Kolb calls 'dialectically related modes' of 'grasping experience' (doing or watching), and 'transforming experience' (feeling or thinking).

LE: Riding a bicycle:

Reflective observation - Thinking about riding and watching another person ride a bike.

Abstract conceptualization - Understanding the theory and having a clear grasp of the biking concept.

Concrete experience - Receiving practical tips and techniques from a biking expert.

Active experimentation - Leaping on the bike and have a go at it.

Learning styles
Diverging (concrete, reflective) :
  • Emphasizes the innovative and imaginative approach to doing things.
  • Views concrete situations from many perspectives and adapts by observation rather than by action.
  • Interested in people and tends to be feeling-oriented.
  • People with the Diverging style prefer to work in groups, to listen with an open mind and to receive personal feedback.

    Assimilating (abstract, reflective)

  • Pulls a number of different observations and thoughts into an integrated whole.
  • Likes to reason inductively and create models and theories.
  • Likes to design projects and experiments.
  • This learning style is important for effectiveness in information and science careers.
  • In formal learning situations, people with this style prefer readings, lectures, exploring analytical models, and having time to think things through.

    Converging (abstract, active)

  • Emphasizes the practical application of ideas and solving problems.
  • Likes decision-making, problem-solving, and the practical application of ideas.
  • Prefers technical problems over interpersonal issues.
  • People with a Converging learning style are best at finding practical uses for ideas and theories
  • A Converging learning style enables specialist and technology abilities.

    Accommodating (concrete, active)

  • Is 'hands-on‘, relies on intuition rather than logic.
  • Good at adapting to changing circumstances; solves problems in an intuitive, trial-and-error manner, such as discovery learning.
  • People with an Accommodating learning style will tend to rely on others for information than carry out their own analysis.
  • This learning style is prevalent and useful in roles requiring action and inventiveness. People with an Accommodating learning style prefer to work in teams to complete tasks.
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