Human rights
Introduction
Human rights are rights inherent to all human beings, whatever our nationality, place of residence, sex, national or ethnic origin, colour, religion, language, or any other status. We are all equally entitled to our human rights without discrimination. These rights are all interrelated, interdependent and indivisible.

The philosophy of human rights addresses questions about the existence, content, nature, universality, justification, and legal status of human rights. The strong claims made on behalf of human rights (for example, that they are universal, or that they exist independently of legal enactment as justified moral norms) frequently provoke skeptical doubts and countering philosophical defences.

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) sets out a list of over two dozen specific human rights that countries should respect and protect. These specific rights can be divided into six or more families: security rights that protect people against crimes such as murder, massacre, torture, and rape; due process rights that protect against abuses of the legal system such as imprisonment without trial, secret trials, and excessive punishments; liberty rights that protect freedoms in areas such as belief, expression, association, assembly, and movement; political rights that protect the liberty to participate in politics through actions such as communicating, assembling, protesting, voting, and serving in public office; equality rights that guarantee equal citizenship, equality before the law, and nondiscrimination; and social (or "welfare") rights that require provision of education to all children and protections against severe poverty and starvation.

What does the Universal Declaration Say?
Equality The Declaration begins by laying down its basic premise that "all human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights."

Life and Security The rights to life, liberty and security, and the right to be free from slavery servitude, torture or cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment further develop the notion of personal dignity and security. The rights of the individual to a just national legal system are also set out.

Personal Freedom Rights protecting a person's privacy in matters relating to family, home, correspondence, reputation and honour and freedom of movement are all part of the Universal Declaration. The right to seek asylum, to a nationality, to marry and found a family and the right to own property are also proclaimed by the Declaration.

Economic, Social and Cultural Freedoms Touching other aspects of the daily lives of people, the Declaration proclaims the right to social security and to the economic, social and cultural right indispensable to human dignity and the free development of each individual's personality. These rights are to be realised through national efforts and international co-operation in accordance with conditions in each state.

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