PHYSICAL HEALTH
Introduction
Physical health is the overall condition of a living organism at a given time, the soundness of the body, freedom from disease or abnormality, and the condition of optimal well-being. People want to function as designed, but environmental forces can attack the body or the person may have genetic malfunctions. The main concern in health is preventing injury and healing damage caused by injuries and biological attacks.

  • Nutrition is the study of food and its relationship to health and disease
  • Wellness refers to optimal health and vitality
  • Health differs based on factors beyond your control, such as genes, age, and family history
  • Many factors within our control, effect our optimal wellness. Which is determined by decisions we make about how we live.
  • Calorie is unit of measure used to quantify food energy or energy expenditure.Its an amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 g water 1 degree C
  • Components of Health-Related Fitness
    There are 5 areas of fitness which help establish health benefits

    Cardiorespiratory Fitness --- Ability to perform prolonged, large muscle, dynamic exercise at moderate to high levels of intensity.

      Participate in activities which are continuous, rhythmic, and include large muscle groups, such as the legs.

      Activities such as: Walking,Jogging,Cycling,Aerobic dancing,Swimming,In-line skating

    Muscular Strength is the capacity of the muscle to exert force with a single maximum effort

    Muscular Endurance is the capacity of the muscle to exert force repeatedly over a period of time, while resisting fatigue

    Flexibility---Ability of joints to move through the full range of motion.Flexibility is needed for our everyday routines.

    Body Composition ---The proportion or percent of fat and fat-free mass (muscle, bone, water) in the body.The relative amount of body fat a person has impacts overall health and wellness.By becoming more physically active, the reduction of body fat can be achieved, resulting in health improvements

    Classes of Nutrients
    Carbohydrates
    • Sugars and starches obtained from plants.
    • Simplest (sugar) – monosaccharide - glucose and fructose
    • Double sugars – disaccharides (pairs chemically linked) - sucrose (table sugar) - lactose (milk sugar) - maltose (malt sugar)
    • Starches – polysaccharides – complex carbohydrates.
    • Starches are the preferred source of carbohydrates.
    • Broken down in the intestine and converted in the lever into glucose.
    • 55% of the calories in your diet should come from carbohydrates.
    Protien
    • Different from carbohydrates and fats in that it contains nitrogen as well as carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
    • Unique chemical structures, basic material to from muscles, bones, cartilage, skin, antibodies, some hormones, and all enzymes.
    • Building blocks called amino acids.
    Fat
    • Fats are oils, sterols (such as cholesterol), waxes, and other substances that are not water soluble.
    • Essential component of all cells.
    • Help synthesize and repair vital cell transport and absorb fat-soluble vitamins, provide insulation (adipose tissue).
    • Also called lipids, made by chemically bonding fatty acids to glycerol to form glycerides, (3 hooked, triglyceride).
    • Saturated, monounsaturated, polyunsaturated.
    • Hydrogenated or partially hydrogenated – transfatty acids.
    • Saturated fat – solid at room temperature
    • Unsaturated fat – liquid at room temperature. Olestra Cholesterol
    Vitamins
    • Are organic compounds (contain carbon) that are necessary in small amounts for good health.
    • Water soluble – B complex and C
    • Fat soluble – A, D, E, and K
    • Antioxidant vitamins, Vitamin C, Carotenoids, Vitamin E,Folate, Vitamin B6, Vitamin B12 Vitamin supplements
    Minerals
    • Simple, but important nutrients.
    • Sodium, potassium – affect shifts in body fluids
    • Calcium and phosphorus – contribute to the body’s structure
    • Iron – core of hemoglobin
    • Iodine – facilitates production of thyroxine
    • Should be consumed in smaller amounts than amounts of energy nutrients and water.
    • Major minerals or macrominerals – calcium, phosphorus, potassium, sulfur, sodium, chloride, and magnesium
    • Trace minerals or microminerals – iron, zinc, and iodine
    Water
    • Next to air, water is the substance most necessary for survival (death results in a few days without water).
    • Makes up 60% of the body’s weight.
    • 75% of brain and muscle tissues: bone tissue and fat tissue are about 20% water.
    • Vital to digestion and metabolism, carries oxygen, regulates body temperature, lubricates joints, removes waste, protects a fetus, assists in respiration, assists in constipation relief, and provides satiety.

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