Managerial Grid : Blake and Mouton
This model identifies five different leadership styles based on the concern for people and the concern for production.

The Blake and Mouton - Managerial Grid(1985) uses two axes:

  1. "Concern for people" is plotted using the vertical axis
  2. "Concern for task" is along the horizontal axis.
The Grid theory translates into practical use through Grid style relationship skills that people experience day in and day out when they work together. Grid theory makes behaviors as tangible and objective as any other corporate commodity.
9.1 Authority-Obedience Management
These peple focuses overwhelmingly on production. A 9.1 manager is an exacting taskmaster who expects schedules to be met and people to do as they are told, no more and no less. Anything that goes wrong will be viewed as someone’s mistake, and the someone must be found and the blame squarely placed. Managers make decisions - subordinates carry them out. The manager should run the show, and disagreement is likely to be seen as the next thing to insubordination.

Positives :       can achieve high production - at least in the short run.
Negatives :      subordinates’ creative energies go into defeating the system rather than improving it.
                          Disagreements are ruled out and suppressed rather than settled.
                          Subordinates do what is required, but no more.
                          Subordinates seem “obviously” indifferent and apathetic
                          win-lose thinking results in a struggle between managers and subordinates.

9.1 management is prevalent in a competitive industrial society because inadequate education leaves many people unable to use more than limited skills and compelled to endure this kind of supervision.
1.9 Country Club Management
emphasizes sole concern for people. It does not push people for production. People are encouraged and supported, their mistakes are overlooked because they are doing the best they can. The key word is togetherness and informal conversation -”no work discussions during breaks”.

Negatives :      people avoid disagreements/criticisms and production problems are glossed over.
                          New ideas/initiatives that would cause trouble or strain are let slide.
                          1.9 style grows up easily in quasi-monopoly situations or when operating on a cost-                           plus basis.
                          Ultimate end will be the closing of an uncompetitive unit.

1.1 Impoverished Management
whole organizations don’t last long with this kind of management but it is frequent enough in individual managers and supervisors.It is characterized by the avoidance of responsibility or personal commitment, and by leaving people to work as they see fit. 1.1 managers do just enough so that if things go wrong they can say “I told them what to do - it’s not my fault.” They minimize contacts with everyone and are non-committal on any problems. The 1.1 approach typically reveals the frustrations of someone who has been passed over for promotion, shunted sideways, or has been in a routine job for years.
5.5 Organization Man Management
managers frequently alternate between 1.9 Country Club Management and 9.1 Authority-Obedience Management styles. They tighten up to increase output but when human relations begin to suffer they swing back to 1.9

The middle of the management grid shows the 5.5 Organization Man Management style, typified by marginal shifts around the happy medium.

This middle of the road style pushes enough to get acceptable production but yields enough to maintain acceptable morale - to aim for both is too idealistic.

Such managers aim at a moderate “carrot and stick” standard, fair but firm, and have confidence in their subordinates’ ability to meet targets.

5.5 management is not effective, it is a management “cop-out” which gives rise to compromise rather than versatility - it gives rise to “splitting the difference” on problems, to attempting balanced solutions rather than appropriate ones.

9.9 Team Management

is highly participative and considered the most effective because;

    • it shows high concern for both production and for people and does not accept that these concerns are incompatible
    • the team manager seeks to integrate people around production
    • morale and managerial inspiration is task related
    • it tries to discover the most appropriate and most effective solutions
    • it aims at the highest attainable production to which all involved contribute and find their own sense of accomplishment
    • people satisfy their own needs through the job and working with others, not through incidental sociability in the Country Club style
    • the 9.9 manager assumes that employees who know what the stakes are for them and for others in what they are doing will not need boss direction and control.  This needs much participation to be achievable - see next bullet point
    • the manager’s responsibility is to see that work is planned and organized by those with a stake in it, not necessarily to do the task personally
    • objectives should be clear to all.  They should be demanding but realistic
    • even when conflict occurs, problems are confronted directly and openly and not as personal disputes.  This encourages creativity
    • it builds long term development and trust.  Organizational performance improvement and the personal growth of those in it are both aims and outcomes of the 9.9 style. 

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