Stages of Human Development : Erik H. Erikson
Erik Erikson, a psychoanalytic theorist, proposed major revisions in Freudís ideas about stages of development. Erikson thought that Freud had over-emphasised the biological and sexual determinants of developmental change and under-emphasised the importance of child-rearing experiences, social relationships, and cultural influences on the development of ego or self. He also believed that important developmental changes occur after childhood. He proposed a series of eight stages of development stretching over the entire life-span. Eriksonís theory has stimulated little research on young children. However, it has been influential in generating research on adolescent and adult development.
    Stage 1: Infancy -- Age 0 to 1

  • Crisis: Trust vs. Mistrust
  • Description: In the first year of life, infants depend on others for food, warmth, and affection, and therefore must be able to blindly trust the parents (or caregivers) for providing those.
  • Positive outcome: If their needs are met consistently and responsively by the parents, infants not only will develop a secure attachment with the parents, but will learn to trust their environment in general as well.
  • Negative outcome: If not, infant will develop mistrust towards people and things in their environment, even towards themselves.
    Stage 2: Toddler -- Age 1 to 2

  • Crisis: Autonomy (Independence) vs. Doubt (or Shame)
  • Description: Toddlers learn to walk, talk, use toilets, and do things for themselves. Their self-control and self-confidence begin to develop at this stage.
  • Positive outcome: If parents encourage their child's use of initiative and reassure her when she makes mistakes, the child will develop the confidence needed to cope with future situations that require choice, control, and independence.
  • Negative outcome: If parents are overprotective, or disapproving of the child's acts of independence, she may begin to feel ashamed of her behavior, or have too much doubt of her abilities.
    Stage 3: Early Childhood -- Age 2 to 6

  • Crisis: Initiative vs. Guilt
  • Description: Children have newfound power at this stage as they have developed motor skills and become more and more engaged in social interaction with people around them. They now must learn to achieve a balance between eagerness for more adventure and more responsibility, and learning to control impulses and childish fantasies.
  • Positive outcome: If parents are encouraging, but consistent in discipline, children will learn to accept without guilt, that certain things are not allowed, but at the same time will not feel shame when using their imagination and engaging in make-believe role plays.
  • Negative outcome: If not, children may develop a sense of guilt and may come to believe that it is wrong to be independent.
    Stage 4: Elementary and Middle School Years -- Age 6 to 12

  • Crisis: Competence (aka. "Industry") vs. Inferiority
  • Description: School is the important event at this stage. Children learn to make things, use tools, and acquire the skills to be a worker and a potential provider. And they do all these while making the transition from the world of home into the world of peers.
  • Positive outcome: If children can discover pleasure in intellectual stimulation, being productive, seeking success, they will develop a sense of competence.
  • Negative outcome: If not, they will develop a sense of inferiority.
    Stage 5: Adolescence -- Age 12 to 18

  • Crisis: Identity vs. Role Confusion
  • Description: This is the time when we ask the question "Who am I?" To successfully answer this question, Erikson suggests, the adolescent must integrate the healthy resolution of all earlier conflicts. Did we develop the basic sense of trust? Do we have a strong sense of independence, competence, and feel in control of our lives? Adolescents who have successfully dealt with earlier conflicts are ready for the "Identity Crisis", which is considered by Erikson as the single most significant conflict a person must face.
  • Positive outcome: If the adolescent solves this conflict successfully, he will come out of this stage with a strong identity, and ready to plan for the future.
  • Negative outcome: If not, the adolescent will sink into confusion, unable to make decisions and choices, especially about vocation, sexual orientation, and his role in life in general.
    Stage 6: Young Adulthood -- Age 19 to 40

  • Crisis: Intimacy vs. Isolation
  • Description: In this stage, the most important events are love relationships. No matter how successful you are with your work, said Erikson, you are not developmentally complete until you are capable of intimacy. An individual who has not developed a sense of identity usually will fear a committed relationship and may retreat into isolation.
  • Positive outcome: Adult individuals can form close relationships and share with others if they have achieved a sense of identity.
  • Negative outcome: If not, they will fear commitment, feel isolated and unable to depend on anybody in the world.
    Stage 7: Middle Adulthood -- Age 40 to 65

  • Crisis: Generativity vs. Stagnation
  • Description: By "generativity" Erikson refers to the adult's ability to look outside oneself and care for others, through parenting, for instance. Erikson suggested that adults need children as much as children need adults, and that this stage reflects the need to create a living legacy.
  • Positive outcome: People can solve this crisis by having and nurturing children, or helping the next generation in other ways.
  • Negative outcome: If this crisis is not successfully resolved, the person will remain self-centered and experience stagnation later in life.
    Stage 8: Late Adulthood -- Age 65 to death

  • Crisis: Integrity vs. Despair Important
  • Description: Old age is a time for reflecting upon one's own life and its role in the big scheme of things, and seeing it filled with pleasure and satisfaction or disappointments and failures.
  • Positive outcome:If the adult has achieved a sense of fulfillment about life and a sense of unity within himself and with others, he will accept death with a sense of integrity. Just as the healthy child will not fear life, said Erikson, the healthy adult will not fear death.
  • Negative outcome: If not, the individual will despair and fear death.

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